About RecipeReminiscing

portait_recipeHello webwanderer, welcome to RecipeReminiscing. I’m TidiousTed and I run this blog. I’m not a chef or cook neither have I any formal training or education in catering or cooking. I’m just a graphic designer and web designer  who likes to cook. A lot of this blog is based on my large colllection of old cook books in Norwegian, Swedish, Danish and English. The rest of the post comes from old ads and roaming the net looking for interesting recipes. I’m interested in food history and soda and soft drink history too so there will be posts on this from time to time as well. I hope you’ll enjoy your stay here – Ted

The History of Coffee

coffee_01The history of coffee goes at least as far back as the 10th century, with a number of reports and legends surrounding its first use. The native (undomesticated) origin of coffee is thought to have been Ethiopia. The earliest substantiated evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree is from the 15th century, in the Sufi monasteries of Yemen. By the 16th century, it had reached the rest of the Middle East, Persia, Turkey, Horn of Africa, and northern Africa. Coffee then spread to the Balkans, Italy and to the rest of Europe, to Indonesia and then to America.

History

The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the 15th century, in Yemen’s Sufi monasteries.

coffee_02Coffee beans were first exported from Ethiopia to Yemen. Yemeni traders brought coffee back to their homeland and began to cultivate the bean.] The word qahwa originally meant wine, and Sufis in Yemen used the beverage as an aid to concentration and as a kind of spiritual intoxication when they chanted the name of God. Sufis used it to keep themselves alert during their nighttime devotions. A translation of Al-Jaziri’s manuscript traces the spread of coffee from Arabia Felix (the present day Yemen) northward to Mecca and Medina, and then to the larger cities of Cairo, Damascus, Baghdad, and Constantinople. By 1414, the beverage was known in Mecca, and in the early 1500s was spreading to the Mameluke Sultanate of Egypt and North Africa from the Yemeni port of Mocha. Associated with Sufism, a myriad of coffee houses grew up in Cairo (Egypt) around the religious University of the Azhar.

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These coffee houses also opened in Syria, especially in the cosmopolitan city of Aleppo, and then in Istanbul, the capital of the Ottoman Empire, in 1554. In 1511, it was forbidden for its stimulating effect by conservative, orthodox imams at a theological court in Mecca. However, these bans were to be overturned in 1524 by an order of the Ottoman Turkish Sultan Suleiman I, with Grand Mufti Mehmet Ebussuud el-İmadi issuing a fatwa allowing the consumption of coffee. In Cairo, Egypt, a similar ban was instituted in 1532, and the coffeehouses and warehouses containing coffee beans were sacked. During the 16th century, it had already reached the rest of the Middle East, the Safavid Empire and the Ottoman Empire. From the Middle East, coffee drinking spread to Italy, then to the rest of Europe, and coffee plants were transported by the Dutch to the East Indies and to the Americas.

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Similarly, coffee was banned by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church some time before the 18th century. However, in the second half of the 19th century, Ethiopian attitudes softened towards coffee drinking, and its consumption spread rapidly between 1880 and 1886; according to Richard Pankhurst, “this was largely due to Emperor Menilek, who himself drank it, and to Abuna Matewos who did much to dispel the belief of the clergy that it was a Muslim drink.”

The earliest mention of coffee noted by the literary coffee merchant Philippe Sylvestre Dufour is a reference to bunchum in the works of the 10th century CE Persian physician Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, known as Rhazes in the West, but more definite information on the preparation of a beverage from the roasted coffee berries dates from several centuries later. One of the most important of the early writers on coffee was Abd al-Qadir al-Jaziri, who in 1587 compiled a work tracing the history and legal controversies of coffee entitled Umdat al safwa fi hill al-qahwa عمدة الصفوة في حل القهو He reported that one Sheikh, Jamal-al-Din al-Dhabhani (d. 1470), mufti of Aden, was the first to adopt the use of coffee (circa 1454).

He found that among its properties was that it drove away fatigue and lethargy, and brought to the body a certain sprightliness and vigour.

Europe

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Coffee was first introduced to Europe in the island of Malta in the 16th century, according to the tv documentary Madwarna. It was introduced there through slavery. Turkish muslim slaves had been imprisoned by the Knights of St John in 1565 – the year of the Great Siege of Malta, and they used to make their traditional beverage. Domenico Magri mentioned in his work Virtu del Kafé,

“..Turks, most skilful makers of this concoction”.

Also the German traveller Gustav Sommerfeldt in 1663 wrote “the ability and industriousness with which the Turkish prisoners earn some money, especially by preparing coffee, a powder resembling snuff tobacco, with water and sugar”. Coffee was a popular beverage in Maltese high society – many coffee shops opened.

Coffee was also noted in Aleppo by the German physician botanist Leonhard Rauwolf, the first European to mention it, as chaube, in 1573; Rauwolf was closely followed by descriptions from other European travellers.

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The vibrant trade between the Republic of Venice and the Muslims in North Africa, Egypt, and the East brought a large variety of African goods, including coffee, to this leading European port. Venetian merchants introduced coffee-drinking to the wealthy in Venice, charging them heavily for the beverage. In this way, coffee was introduced to the mainland of Europe. The first European coffee house apart from those in the Ottoman Empire and in Malta was opened in Venice in 1645.

England

coffee_12According to Leonhard Rauwolf’s 1583 account, coffee became available in England no later than the 16th century, largely through the efforts of the British East India Company and the Dutch East India Company. The first coffeehouse in England was opened in St. Michael’s Alley in Cornhill, London. The proprietor was Pasqua Rosée, the servant of Daniel Edwards, a trader in Turkish goods. Edwards imported the coffee and assisted Rosée in setting up the establishment. Oxford’s Queen’s Lane Coffee House, established in 1654, is still in existence today. By 1675, there were more than 3,000 coffeehouses throughout England, but there were many disruptions in the progressive movement of coffeehouses between the 1660s and 1670s. During the enlightenment, these early English coffee houses became gathering places used for deep religious and political discussions among the populace. This practice became so common, and potentially subversive, that Charles II made an attempt to crush coffee houses in 1675.

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The banning of women from coffeehouses was not universal, for example, women frequented them in Germany, but it appears to have been commonplace elsewhere in Europe, including in England.

Many in this period believed coffee to have medicinal properties. A 1661 tract entitled “A character of coffee and coffee-houses”, written by one “M.P.”, lists some of these perceived benefits:

‘Tis extolled for drying up the Crudities of the Stomack, and for expelling Fumes out of the Head. Excellent Berry! which can cleanse the English-man’s Stomak of Flegm, and expel Giddinesse out of his Head.

This new commodity proved controversial among some subjects, however. For instance, the anonymous 1674 “Women’s Petition Against Coffee” declared:

The Excessive Use of that Newfangled, Abominable, Heathenish Liquor called COFFEE …has…Eunucht our Husbands, and Crippled our more kind Gallants, that they are become as Impotent, as Age.

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Americas

Gabriel de Clieu brought coffee seedlings to Martinique in the Caribbean circa 1720. Those sprouts flourished and 50 years later there were 18,680 coffee trees in Martinique enabling the spread of coffee cultivation to Saint-Domingue (Haiti), Mexico and other islands of the Caribbean. The French territory of Saint-Domingue, saw coffee cultivated from 1734, and by 1788 it supplied half the world’s coffee. Coffee had a major influence on the geography of Latin America. The French colonial plantations relied heavily on African slave laborers. However, the dreadful conditions that the slaves worked in on coffee plantations were a factor in the soon-to-follow Haitian Revolution. The coffee industry never fully recovered there.

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Coffee also found its way to the Isle of Bourbon, now known as Réunion, in the Indian Ocean. The plant produced smaller beans and was deemed a different variety of arabica known as var. Bourbon. The Santos coffee of Brazil and the Oaxaca coffee of Mexico are the progeny of that Bourbon tree. Circa 1727, the King of Portugal sent Francisco de Melo Palheta to French Guiana to obtain coffee seeds to become a part of the coffee market. Francisco initially had difficulty obtaining these seeds, but he captivated the French Governor’s wife and she sent him enough seeds and shoots to commence the coffee industry of Brazil. In 1893, the coffee from Brazil was introduced into Kenya and Tanzania (Tanganyika), not far from its place of origin in Ethiopia, 600 years prior, ending its transcontinental journey.

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Meanwhile, coffee had been introduced to Brazil in 1727, although its cultivation did not gather momentum until independence in 1822. After this time, massive tracts of rainforest were cleared first from the vicinity of Rio and later São Paulo for coffee plantations.

coffee_11After the Boston Tea Party of 1773, large numbers of Americans switched to drinking coffee during the American Revolution because drinking tea had become unpatriotic.

Cultivation was taken up by many countries in the latter half of the 19th century, and almost all involved the large-scale displacement and exploitation of the indigenous Indian people. Harsh conditions led to many uprisings, coups and bloody suppression of peasants. The notable exception was Costa Rica, where lack of ready labor prevented the formation of large farms. Smaller farms and more egalitarian conditions ameliorated unrest over the 19th and 20th centuries.

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Brazil became the largest producer of coffee in the world by 1852 and it held that status ever since. It dominated world production, exporting more coffee than the rest of the world combined, from 1850 to 1950. The period since 1950 saw the widening of the playing field due to the emergence of several other major producers, most notably Colombia, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia, and, most recently, Vietnam, which overtook Colombia and became the second-largest producer in 1999 and reached 15% market share by 2011.

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Visiting a coffee house is not the social occasion it once was apparently – Ted

Text from Wikipedia

Pineapple Pastels / Ananas Pasteller

A delicious filled bun recipe found on sbs.com.auPineapple pastels_sbs-com-au_post

Hailing from the northern Philippine island of Camiguin, these soft, golden brioche buns are filled with a rich and sweet pineapple-flavoured custard.

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Ymer Potato Salad / Ymer-Kartoffelsalat

A classic Danish salad found in “God Mat – Let at Lave”
(Nice Food – Easy To Make) published in 1976
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Ymer is a Danish soured milk product which has been known since 1930. It is made by fermenting whole milk with the bacterial culture Lactococcus lactis. When producing fermented milk products such as yogurt, ymer, filmjölk, skyr, qvark and A-38, and also when producing cheese, one can add lactic acid bacteria which convert milk sugar in the milk into lactic acid and other substances. Acidity makes the milk thicker, gives it a tart flavor, and increases the shelf life by several days.

Ymer is named after the primordial being Ymir in Norse mythology. In 1937, dairy farmer E. Larsen in Hatting registered his new soured milk product as ymer; the name was then used by other dairies that began making the product.

Ymer is made with the help of a starter culture, which is added to skimmed milk (milk whose fat content is typically 0.1% and generally no higher than 0.5%). It is kept at 18° C until the pH drops to 4.6. The serum is broken down and drained after fermentation, and cream is added.

Unlike other fermented milk products, ymer is drained of its whey. That means that ymer has a higher content of solids, including protein, while the fat content stays at 3.5% as in whole milk.

Ymer is used in breakfasts, snacks, desserts, dressings and baking. The traditional breakfast topping is ymerdrys (“ymer sprinkle”), which is a mix of rugbrød breadcrumbs and brown sugar.

1 deciliter of ymer contains 146 kJ (35 kilocalories). It can be substituded with sour cream if impossible to get hold of.

Soda & Soft Drink Saturday – White Rock Beverages

white rock beverages

White Rock Beverages (White Rock Products Corporation) is an American beverage company located in Whitestone, NY. The company was established in 1871 by pharmacist H.M. Colver in Waukesha, Wisconsin. Potawatomi Indians and settlers believed that the nearby White Rock natural spring had special medicinal powers, so White Rock Beverages started out as destination for vacationers and health seekers. By 1876, the company was bottling and distributing the natural spring water throughout the country.

117271_wr2Marketing with Santa Claus

Coca-Cola is frequently credited with the “invention” of the modern image of Santa Claus as an old man in red-and-white garments – however, White Rock predated Coca-Cola’s usage of Santa in advertisements for soft drinks. In 1923, the company used Santa to advertise its ginger ale after first using him to sell mineral water in 1915.

Drink maker history

By 1923 White Rock Beverages was one of the largest producers of mineral water in the United States. The company also produced ginger ale and other soft drinks. Its property value was then calculated at $7, 311, 767. This included land holdings and bottling plants.

In 1941 the company which manufactured White Rock soft drinks was called White Rock Mineral Springs Company.

White Rock Brand portfolio

Seltzer: Plain, Mandarin Orange, Lemon Lime, Black Cherry, Raspberry
Organic: Passion Orange, Raspberry Crème,Red Peach
Soda: Cream Soda, Black Cherry, Root Beer, Grape, Orange, Lemon-Lime, Cola
Mixers: Club Soda, Diet Ginger Ale, Ginger Ale,Diet Tonic Water, Tonic Water

Text from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Chicken with Mushrooms and Onions / Kylling med Sopp og Løk

A juicy dinner recipe found in “Cappelens Kokebook”
published in 1991

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By the way, this was my post
No 1500 on this blog

Lyle’s Dreamy Choco-Nut Cream Pancakes / Lyles Drømmeaktige Pannekaker med Sjokonøttkrem

A delicious pancake recipe found on lylesgoldensyrup.com
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Rich cream, crunchy nuts and Lyle’s golden goodness… Enjoy this creamy treat for a special morning start – or a great dessert at any time!

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Nice Wholegrain Bread / Fint Helkornbrød

A delicious bread recipe found on brodogkorn.no
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Wholegain bread is a juicy and good bread with whole wheat grains, rye flour, honey and flour. It works nicely as an accompaniment to soup and other dinner dishes.

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Lightly Salted Cod with Bacon / Lettsaltet Torsk med Bacon

A traditional Norwegian dinner recipe found on matprat.nolettsaltet torsk med bacon_post

Salted cod reawakens fond childhood memories for many Norwegians, me as well. Along with homemade mashed potatoes, fried bacon and carrots, this is traditional Norwegian food at its best – Ted

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18th Century Ship’s Bisket / 1800talls Skipskjeks

Authentic ships bisket recipe found on savouringthepast.net
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Jas Townsend who runs savouringthepast.net writes: This Ship’s Bisket is known by many names. Most of the time it was called just bisket, sometimes it was called hard bisket or brown bisket, sea bisket and ship’s bread. Now many today might want to call it hard tack, but hard tack is really a 19th century term that was popularized during the American civil war.

These 18th century biskets are not like today’s buttery flaky version that we serve along with sausage gravy for breakfast. These biskets were not made to be enjoyed; they were made out of necessity.

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Ship’s captains faced a continual challenge of having enough food on board to feed a large crew for a long journey. Food spoilage was really his greatest concern. Fresh bread rapidly became moldy on long trips and stored flour would go rancid and bug ridden, so hard bisket was really born out of necessity.

It was a means of food preservation. If it was prepared and stored properly it would last for a year or more. In addition to preservation, the bisket form also helped in portability and in dividing the rations when it came time. Soldiers and sailors typically got one pound of bread a day and biskets were usually about four ounces so when it came time to distribute them, each sailor or soldier would get four biskets.

Biskets from London were considered to be the highest quality. They were the most resistant to mold and insects. They were really the standard by which all the other bisket maker’s aspired to, but not all biskets were the same quality.

Queen’s Gingerbread / Dronningens Krydderkake

A recipe from medieval times found on theguardian.comQueen's gingerbread_post

A dark, highly spiced slab gingerbread (what the Elizabethans would have called a sweetmeat) that’s rather firm like panforte, and ever so good cut into small diamonds to serve with brandy after dinner.

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Marinated Lamb Chops with Green Butter / Marinerte Lammekoteletter med Grønt Smør

A delicious dinner recipe found in “Robert Carrier’s Kitchen
Cook Book” published in 1980
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Robert Carrier McMahon, OBE (Tarrytown, New York, November 10, 1923 – France, June 27, 2006), usually known as Robert Carrier, was an American chef, restaurateur and cookery writer. His success came in England, where he was based from 1953 to 1984, and then from 1994 until his death.

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Orange Ring / Appelsinrand

A delicious dessert recipe found in “Med Frukt og Bær”
(With Fruit and Berries) published by
Hjemmets Kokebokklubb in 1982

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Believe it or not dear visitor, it is quite possible to make dessert like this without the help of Jello or similar products. This recipe shows you how – Ted 😉

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The History of Condiments

condiments_01Since ancient times people have used condiments to enhance their food. The first condiment was salt. Salt has always been used both as a preservative and to enhance the flavor of food. Vinegar has also been used since ancient times. Its name is probably derived from the French words vin aiger meaning sour wine. (Vinegar was used as a medicine as well as a food).

The Romans liked condiments and they made many sauces for their food. One of the most common was a fish sauce called liquamen. The Romans also grew mustard and they introduced it into the parts of Europe they conquered. They also made mint sauce.

condiments_02In the Middle Ages mustard was a popular condiment in Europe. At first English mustard consisted of coarse powder and it was not very strong. However in 1720 a Mrs Clements of Durham began making a much smoother mustard powder. When mixed with water to make paste it was very hot but it proved to be popular and Durham became a center of the mustard industry. (For centuries mustard was used as a medicine as well as a food).

In the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries new condiments were invented. Pesto sauce was invented in 16th century Italy. Furthermore new sauces were invented in the 17th century including bechamel and chasseur. Chutney comes from India. It was first exported to England in the 17th century. Soy sauce, which was invented in China reached Europe in the 17th century and by the mid-18th century it was popular in Britain.

condiments_03According to one story a French chef first made mayonnaise in 1756. However there are many stories about where it comes from. Hollandaise sauce was also first recorded in the mid-18th century. Ketchup began life as a Chinese fish sauce called ke-tsiap. The name was gradually changed to ketchup and in Britain people added other ingredients instead of fish. In the 18th century they began adding tomatoes. Sauces similar to tartar sauce were made in the Middle Ages but ‘modern’ tartar sauce was first made in the 1800s

condiments_04In the 19th century with the Industrial Revolution condiments began to be mass-produced in factories. Tomato ketchup was a best seller and HP sauce was invented at the end of the 19th century. Meanwhile Worcester sauce was invented in Worcester in 1835 by John Lea and William Perrins. Horseradish sauce went on sale in bottles in the USA around 1860. Salad cream was invented in 1914.

As well as sauces people have also looked for ways to sweeten their food. Since the time of the Ancient Egyptians and probably before people have kept bees for honey. Over condiments_05the centuries honey was very valuable and it was sometimes used as a currency or it was given as a tribute to a conqueror. Since ancient times people have also made an alcoholic drink called mead from honey.

Sugar cane first grew in South Asia. Later the Arabs and Europeans grew sugar cane. At the end of the 15th century sugar cane was taken to the New World. Sugar was first made from sugar beet in the 18th century. A German chemist called Andreas Marggraf was the first person to make sugar from beet in 1747. Saccharine was invented in 1879 by Constantine Fahlberg.

Text from localhistories.org

Hungarian Farmhouse Bread / Ungarsk Landbrød

A bread recipe found on “Mat til Hverdag og Fest”
(Food for Everydays and parties)
published by Hjemmets Kokebokklubb in 1984
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Bread that rise in baskets like this recipe suggests often gets intricate patterns in the top crust. Well worth trying if you ask me – Ted 🙂

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Saffron- and Caraway Pretzels / Safran- og Karvekringler

A double recipe found in “Gjærbakst” (Yeast Bakery)
published by Hjemmets Kokebokklubb in 1979

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A recipe for two kinds of pretzels made with the same dough.
The trick lies in the seasoning – Ted 😉

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