Chocolate Blanc Mange / Sjokolade Blanc Mange

A recipe with a long history found on “One Hundred Tested
Recipe”  published by Carnation in 1921
Chocolate Blanc Mange / Sjokolade Blanc Mange

Blanc mange (/bləˈmɒnʒ/ or /bləˈmɑːndʒ/, from French blanc-manger French pronunciation: ​[blɑ̃mɑ̃ʒe]) is a sweet dessert commonly made with milk or cream and sugar thickened with gelatin, cornstarch or Irish moss (a source of carrageenan), and often flavoured with almonds.

It is usually set in a mould and served cold. Although traditionally white, blancmanges are frequently given alternative colours. Some similar desserts are Bavarian cream, panna cotta, annin tofu, the Turkish muhallebi, and haupia.

The historical blancmange originated some time in the Middle Ages and usually consisted of capon or chicken, milk or almond milk, rice and sugar and was considered to be an ideal food for the sick. Tavuk göğsü is a sweet contemporary Turkish pudding made with shredded chicken, similar to the medieval European dish.

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Dark-Chocolate Cherry Truffles / Mørk Sjokolade- og Kirsebærtrøfler

Yet another grown-up sweets recipe found on chatelaine.com
Dark-Chocolate Cherry Truffles / Mørk Sjokolade- og Kirsebærtrøfler

These tempting truffles add an eye-catching flourish to the dessert table, and with their sweet cherry centre, they’ll disappear in no time.

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Chocolate Plunge / Sjokolade Dip

A hot chocolate dip recipe found on an ad for
Karo and Baker’s published in 1987

Chocolate Plunge / Sjokolade Dip

Indulge in a little hot chocolate, syrup and cream dip during Easter and rescue your conscience by dipping nothing but fresh fruit

Ted
Winking smile

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Spiced Hot Chocolate / Krydret Varm Sjokolade

A hot beverage recipe from the 17th century found on historyextra.comSpiced Hot Chocolate / Krydret Varm Sjokolade

In every issue of BBC History Magazine, picture editor Sam Nott brings you a recipe from the past. In this article, Sam recreates spiced hot chocolate – a chocolate treat enjoyed by kings and queens.

Sam writes: Hot chocolate has always been one of my favourite drinks but I have often wondered when the drink was first consumed in Britain.

I was surprised to find out that chocolate itself arrived in England in the 1600s, with evidence of it being drunk at the court of Charles I – before it was deemed a sinful pleasure by Oliver Cromwell, and banned.

This recipe is based on the drink served at the English court during the 17th and 18th centuries and the spices make it smell – and taste – wonderful. It’s also very simple to make. The drink is very rich – you won’t need a big portion – but since chocolate was believed to have medicinal properties well into the mid-18th century, you can see it as a relatively guilt-free treat!

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A Cup of Hot Chocolate, S’Good for What Ails Ya

An article by Mary Miley Theobald at history.orgA Cup of Hot Chocolate, S’Good for What Ails Ya

Some historians think that chocolate drinking spread from England to its North American colonies, but it seems more likely that it came directly in ships that plied the trade routes from the West Indies to the major colonial ports of Boston, Philadelphia, New York, and Newport, Rhode Island. Whatever the route, chocolate arrived in English North America at about the same time it arrived in England. It was available as chocolate nuts, as shells, and in processed “chocolate cakes,” lumps of grated powder and sugar ready to be stirred into boiling water, mixed with whatever ingredients one preferred, and frothed with the little hand mill.

A Cup of Hot Chocolate, S’Good for What Ails Ya

Those who bought the cacao seed had to roast and grind the chocolate themselves or, more likely, have their servants or slaves do the tedious job. Those who, like Martha Washington, purchased the cacao shells, steeped them in hot water to make a thin chocolaty drink that was easier on the stomach than oily chocolate.

According to Jim Gay, most chocolate was processed in the northern colonies, in New England, Philadelphia, and New York. It was sold in its various forms in general stores and grocers’ shops. In pre-Revolutionary Williamsburg, unsweetened chocolate went for about two shillings sixpence per pound, slightly more than a free unskilled laborer or sailor earned in a day. Obviously, few of those men drank chocolate. Prices fell, however, and by the nineteenth century, it had become cheap enough to be given to slaves.

A Cup of Hot Chocolate, S’Good for What Ails Ya
Nobilities drinking chocolate in Mrs White’s Chocolate House in London.

Its perceived medicinal value made chocolate a natural product for apothecary shops. It was considered nourishing for the sick as well as an aid to digestion and was believed to promote longevity, help lung ailments, energize the body, cure hangovers, suppress coughs, and, as mentioned, stimulate the libido. For that reason, the Virginia A Cup of Hot Chocolate, S’Good for What Ails YaAlmanac of 1770 cautioned women against it, warning “the fair sex to be in a particular manner careful how they meddle with romances, chocolate, novels, and the like,” especially in the spring, as those were all “inflamers” and “very dangerous.”

“This was very much ignored,” Jim Gay says. “Women were the main consumers of chocolate. Children were denied chocolate because it was a stimulant.” But it was this sexy reputation that caused chocolate to become associated with love, Valentine’s Day, sinful pleasures, and decadence.

Ben Franklin recommended chocolate as a cure for smallpox in Poor Richard’s Almanac of 1761; Doctor Benjamin Rush did the same in his A Cup of Hot Chocolate, S’Good for What Ails Yamedical texts. Thomas Jefferson thought chocolate would overtake tea and coffee as the American beverage of choice. In a letter of November 27, 1785, to John Adams he wrote, “The superiority of chocolate, both for health and nourishment, will soon give it the preference over tea and coffee in America which it has in Spain.” In this he was mistaken. Chocolate drinking would soon decline in favor of chocolate eating.

By the late eighteenth century, a very few, very wealthy Americans were eating chocolate as food. Not the creamy sort of milk chocolate candy bars we know today—those would not exist until the nineteenth century—this rather gritty chocolate was shaved and cooked into puddings, pies, and tarts and served as a side dish at dinner. It was also mixed into creams and ice creams and almond-shaped candies and served at the finest tables as part of the dessert course.

A Cup of Hot Chocolate, S’Good for What Ails Ya

North America’s first cookbook, printed in 1742 in Williamsburg by William Parks, publisher of the Virginia Gazette, contained but one chocolate recipe: “chocolate almonds.” The list of ingredients included A Cup of Hot Chocolate, S’Good for What Ails Yano almonds; the word merely reflected the shape of the chocolate, which was mixed with sugar, orange flower water, and a binder. Today we might call it a chocolate drop.

Gay’s research turned up other Virginia chocolate recipes in manuscript form, sometimes written by an unknown housewife. One of these mixes sugar, chocolate, and almonds, then directs the cook to use cochineal to color them red, saffron for yellow, “Stone blew” for blue, and “the Juice of Spinage” for green. Gay calls this “the eighteenth-century ancestor of M&Ms.”

A Cup of Hot Chocolate, S’Good for What Ails YaChocolate did not really become a food until the middle of the nineteenth century. The pivotal date was 1828, when a Dutchman, Casparus Van Houten, invented a machine for manufacturing powdered low-fat cocoa. Chocolate beverages became easier and cheaper to make, leading to what some have called the democratization of chocolate.

A Cup of Hot Chocolate, S’Good for What Ails Ya

In 1847, an English chocolate maker that had been in business almost a hundred years, J. S. Fry and Sons, developed the first molded chocolate bar. A Swiss, Henri Nestlé, figured out in 1867 how to make powdered milk by evaporation, and another Swiss, Daniel Peter, came up with the idea of blending Nestlé’s powdered milk with chocolate in 1879. The milk chocolate candy bar was on its way.

Earl Grey Chocolates / Earl Grey Sjokolader

A delicious chocolate recipe found on epicurus.comEarl Grey Chocolates_post

Tasty, sultry and sinfully good, Earl Grey Chocolates provide a delicious snack – a morsel of love. The tea ganache is smooth
and luscious.

This one is for you Ingrid ❤

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Chocolate Orange Pots / Sjokolade og Appelsinformer

A dessert recipe found in “The Chocolate Book”
by Valerie Barrett published in 1987

Chocolate Orange Pots / Sjokolade og Appelsinformer

Chocolate and orange is a delicious combination. The orange adds a bit of freshness to a chocolate dessert that otherwise might seem a little too heavy.

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The History of KitKat

kitKat_08Use of the name Kit Kat or Kit Cat for a type of food goes back to the 18th century, when mutton pies known as a Kit-Kat were served at meetings of the political Kit-Cat Club in London.

The origins of what is now known as the Kit Kat brand go back to 1911, when Rowntree’s, a confectionery company based in York in the United Kingdom, trademarked the terms Kit Cat and Kit Kat. Although the terms were not immediately used, the first conception of the Kit Kat appeared in the 1920s, when Rowntree launched a brand of boxed chocolates entitled Kit Cat. This continued into the 1930s, when Rowntree’s shifted focus and production onto its Black Magic and Dairy Box brands. With the promotion of alternative kitKat_02products the Kit Cat brand decreased and was eventually discontinued. The original four-finger bar was developed after a worker at Rowntree’s York Factory put a suggestion in a recommendation box for a snack that “a man could take to work in his pack”. The bar launched on 29 August 1935, under the title of Rowntree’s Chocolate Crisp (priced at 2d), and was sold in London and throughout Southern England.

kitKat_05The product’s official title of Rowntree’s Chocolate Crisp was renamed Kit Kat Chocolate Crisp in 1937, the same year that Kit Kat began to incorporate “Break” into its recognisable advertising strategy. The colour scheme and first flavour variation to the brand came in 1942, owing to World War II, when food shortages prompted an alteration in the recipe. The flavour of Kit Kat was changed to dark chocolate; the packaging abandoned its Chocolate Crisp title, and was adorned in blue.[5] After the war the title was altered to Kit Kat and resumed its original milk recipe and red packaging.

kitKat_03Following on from its success in the United Kingdom, in the 1940s Kit Kat was exported to Canada, South Africa, Ireland, Australia, and New Zealand. In 1958, Donald Gilles, the executive at JWT Orland, created the iconic advertising line “Have a Break, Have a Kit Kat”. The brand further expanded in the 1970s when Rowntree created a new distribution factory in Germany to meet European demand, and established agreements to distribute the brand in the USA and Japan through the Hershey and Fujiya companies, respectively. In June 1988 Nestlé acquired Kit Kat through the purchase of Rowntree’s. This gave Nestlé global control over the brand, except in the US, and production and distribution increased with new facilities in Japan and additional manufacturing operations set up in Malaysia, India and China.[2]

The Hershey Company has a licence to produce Kit Kat bars in the United States which dates from 1970, when Hershey executed a licensing agreement with Rowntree. Nestlé, which has a substantial kitKat_04presence in the US, had to honour the licensing agreement when it bought Rowntree in 1988 which allowed Hershey to retain the Kit Kat licence so long as Hershey was not sold. As Kit Kat is one of Hershey’s top five brands in the US market, the Kit Kat licence was a key factor in Hershey’s failed attempt to attract a serious buyer in 2002.

Variants in the traditional chocolate bar first appeared in 1996 when Kit Kat Orange, the first flavour variant, was introduced in the United Kingdom. Its success was followed by several varieties including mint and caramel, and in 1999 Kit Kat Chunky was launched and received favourably by international consumers. Variations on the traditional Kit Kat have continued to develop throughout the 2000s. In 2000, Nestlé acquired Fujiya’s share of the brand in Japan, and also expanded its marketplace in Japan, Russia, Turkey, and Venezuela, in addition to kitKat_01markets in Eastern and Central Europe. Throughout the decade Kit Kat has introduced dozens of flavours and line extensions within specific consumer markets, and celebrated its 75th anniversary on 10 October 2009.

The traditional bar has four fingers which each measure approximately 1 centimetre (0.4 in) by 9 centimetres (3.5 in). A two-finger bar was launched in the 1930s, and has remained the company’s best-selling biscuit brand ever since. The 1999 Kit Kat Chunky (known as Big Kat and Kit Kat Extra Crispy in the US) has one large finger approximately 2.5 centimetres (1 in) wide. Kit Kat bars contain varying numbers of fingers depending on the market, ranging from the half-finger sized Kit Kat Petit in Japan, to the three-fingered variants in Arabia, to the twelve-finger family-size bars in Australia and France. Kit Kat bars are sold individually and in bags, boxes and multi-packs. In Ireland, France, the UK and America Nestlé also produces a Kit Kat ice cream, and in Australia and Malaysia, Kit Kat Drumsticks.

In 2010, a new £5 million manufacturing line was opened by Nestlé in York. This will produce more than a billion Kit Kat bars each year.

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Text from Wikipedia

Amoretti Truffles / Amoretti Trøfler

A sweets recipe found in “The Chocolate Book”
by Valerie Barrett published in 1987
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In context: A macaroon (/mækəˈruːn/ mak-ə-roon) is a type of small circular cake, typically made from ground almonds (the original main ingredient), coconut, and/or other nuts or even potato, with sugar, egg white, and sometimes flavorings (e.g. honey, vanilla, spices), food coloring, glace cherries, jam and/or a chocolate coating. Some recipes call for sweetened condensed milk.  Macaroons are often baked on edible rice paper placed on a baking tray.

Amaretti di Saronno are a usually crunchy variety from Saronno. Both are often served on special occasions such as Christmas.

Chocolate Pancakes / Sjokoladepannekaker

A recipe from “32 Entirely New & Original Lutona Cocoa Recipes” published by E & S Jt. C.W.S Ltd. in the 1930s
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In Context: The English and the Scottish CWS opened a cocoa factory in Dallow Road, Luton, in 1902. Like the British Empire it is gone now, demolished early in 1970. It is now a site of the Guardian Business Park, near the junction with Vernon Road. This poster dates from 1906 and is a contrast between an idealised view of work in West Africa and the impressive building with smoking chimney to demonstarte a hive of industry in Luton.

luton cocoa 1906

Nowadays the cocoa and chocolate is advertised as a Fairtrade product, the workers in West Africa have their own co-operative, but no sign of any factories in the UK, or wherever it is processed in the EU.

Chocolate Cake with Marzipan Cover / Sjokoladekake med Marsipantrekk

A cake recipe found in “Kaker til Kaffen” (Cakes for the Coffee) published by Hjemmets Kokebokklubb in 1979
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French Chocolate + 2 more / Fransk Sjokolade + 2 til

3 recipes from  “Best Chocolate and Cocoa Recipes”
published by Walter Baker & Company in 1931

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Text from the booklet:

Beverages – Steaming or Frosted –
Cocoa … The Food Drink

A fragrant cup of Baker’s Cocoa, beaded with creamy bubbles, is one of the most beneficial food drinks for both children and adults. Made with a generous supply of milk, it contains the vital food elements in admirably balanced proportion . . . elements necessary for buoyant health and robust bodies.

There is also glowing warmth for frosty mornings … sustaining energy for those in-between hours after school . . . and soothing nourishment at nightfall for tired minds and bodies.

Foamy, creamy-rich cocoa is a wonderful food with which to woo finicky child-appetites – an easy and delicious way of helping to include the daily quart of milk in their meals. Grown-ups welcome cocoa, too, as a way of building up run-down systems. And in this day of slimmer waists, cocoa is popular because it provides nourishment that is satisfying but not fattening.

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Old Fashioned Chocolate Fudge / Gammeldags Amerikansk Sjokoladefudge

A sweet recipe found in “Hershey Favourite Recipes”
published in 1937
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Origin of Fudge

traditional badge americanAmerican-style fudge (containing chocolate) is found in a letter written by Emelyn Battersby Hartridge, a student at Vassar College in Poughkeepsie, New York. She wrote that her schoolmate’s cousin made fudge in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1886 and sold it for 40 cents a pound. Hartridge obtained the fudge recipe and, in 1888, made 30 lb (14 kg) of fudge for the Vassar College Senior Auction. This Vassar fudge recipe became quite popular at the school for years to come.

000_fudgeWord of this popular confectionery spread to other women’s colleges. For example, Wellesley College and Smith College have their own versions of a fudge recipe dating from the late 19th or early 20th century.

In the late 19th century, shops on Mackinac Island in Michigan began to produce similar products for summer vacationers. Fudge is still produced in some of the original shops on Mackinac Island and the surrounding area. Mackinac Island Fudge ice cream, a vanilla ice cream with chunks of fudge blended in, is also very common in this region and across the United States.

History of Cadbury

1824–1900: Early history

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In 1824, John Cadbury began selling tea, coffee, and drinking chocolate in Bull Street in Birmingham, England. From 1831 he moved into the production of a variety of cocoa and drinking chocolates, made in a factory in Bridge Street and sold mainly to the wealthy because of the high cost of production. In 1847 John Cadbury became a partner with his brother Benjamin and the company became known as “Cadbury Brothers”

000_cadburys_01The brothers opened an office, in London and in 1854 they received the Royal Warrant as manufacturers of chocolate and cocoa to Queen Victoria. The company went into decline in the late 1850s.

John Cadbury’s sons Richard and George took over the business in 1861. At the time of the takeover, the business was in rapid decline: the number of employees had reduced from 20 to 11, and the company was losing money. By 1864 Cadbury was profitable again. The brothers had turned around the business by moving the focus from tea and coffee to chocolate, and by increasing the quality of their products.

The firm’s first major breakthrough occurred in 1866 when Richard and George introduced an improved cocoa into Britain. A new cocoa press developed in the Netherlands removed some of the unpalatable cocoa butter from the cocoa bean. The firm began exporting its products in the 1870s. In the 1880s the firm began to produce chocolate confectioneries.

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In 1878 the brothers decided to build new premises in countryside four miles from Birmingham. The move to the countryside was unprecedented in business. Better transport access for milk that was inward shipped by canal, and cocoa that was brought in by rail from 000_cadburys_03London, Southampton and Liverpool docks was taken into consideration. With the development of the Birmingham West Suburban Railway along the path of the Worcester and Birmingham Canal, they acquired the Bournbrook estate, comprising 14.5 acres (5.9 ha) of countryside 5 miles (8.0 km) south of the outskirts of Birmingham. Located next Stirchley Street railway station, which itself was opposite the canal, they renamed the estate Bournville and opened the Bournville factory the following year.

In 1893, George Cadbury bought 120 acres (49 ha) of land close to the works and planned, at his own expense, a model village which would ‘alleviate the evils of modern more cramped living conditions’. By 1900 the estate included 314 cottages and houses set on 330 acres (130 ha) of land. As the Cadbury family were Quakers there were no pubs in the estate.

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In 1897, following the lead of Swiss companies, Cadbury introduced its own line of milk chocolate bars.

In 1899 Cadbury became a private limited company.

1900–1969

000_cadburys_02In 1905, Cadbury launched its Dairy Milk bar, a production of exceptional quality with a higher proportion of milk than previous chocolate bars. Developed by George Cadbury Jr, it was the first time a British company had been able to mass-produce milk chocolate. From the beginning, it had the distinctive purple wrapper. It was a great sales success, and became the company’s best selling product by 1914. The stronger Bournville Cocoa line was introduced in 1906. Cadbury Dairy Milk and Bournville Cocoa were to provide the basis for the company’s rapid pre-war expansion. In 1910, Cadbury sales overtook those of Fry for the first time. By 1914, exports accounted for 40 percent of Cadbury’s sales.

Cadbury’s Milk Tray was first produced in 1915 and continued in production throughout the remainder of the First World War. More than 2,000 of Cadbury’s male employees joined the Armed Forces and to support the war effort, Cadbury provided clothing, books and chocolate to soldiers. After the war, the Bournville factory was redeveloped and mass production began in earnest. In 1918, Cadbury opened their first overseas factory in Hobart, Tasmania.

000_cadburys_07In 1919 Cadbury merged with J. S. Fry & Sons, another leading British chocolate manufacturer, resulting in the integration of well-known brands such as Fry’s Chocolate Cream and Fry’s Turkish Delight. In 1921, the many small Fry’s factories around Bristol were closed down, and production was consolidated at a new factory in Somerdale, outside Bristol.

Inter-war Britain saw cocoa replaced by chocolate (especially milk chocolate bars) as Britain’s preferred product.

Fruit and Nut was introduced as part of the Dairy Milk line in 1928, soon followed by Whole Nut in 1933. By this point, Cadbury was the brand leader in the United Kingdom. These were accompanied by several other products: Flake (1920), Cream-filled eggs (1923), Crunchie (1929) (Crunchie was originally launched under the Fry’s name but later adopted by Cadbury’s) and Roses (1938).

By 1930 Cadbury had become the 24th largest British manufacturing company as measured by estimated market value of capital. Cadbury took direct control of the under-performing Fry in 1935. By 1936, Dairy Milk accounted for 60 percent of the UK milk chocolate market.

000_cadburys_10Chocolate ceased to be a luxury product and became affordable to the working classes for the first time. By the mid-1930s, Cadbury estimated that 90 percent of the British population could afford to buy chocolate.

During World War II, parts of the Bournville factory were turned over to war work, producing milling machines and seats for fighter aircraft. Workers ploughed football fields to plant crops. As chocolate was regarded as an essential food, it was placed under government supervision for the entire war. The wartime rationing of chocolate ended in 1950, and normal production resumed. Cadbury subsequently invested in new factories and had an increasing demand for their products.

In 1952 the Moreton factory was built. In 1956, Cadbury began manufacturing in Bombay.

In 1967 Cadbury acquired an Australian confectioner, MacRobertson’s, beating a rival bid from Mars. As a result of the takeover, Cadbury built a 60 percent market share in the Australian market. The acquisition brought such brands as Freddo and Snack to the Cadbury roster.

Schweppes merger and demerger (1969 – 2007)

000_cadburys_08The Cadbury Schweppes logo used until the demerger in 2008 Cadbury merged with drinks company Schweppes to form Cadbury Schweppes in 1969. Head of Schweppes, Lord Watkinson, became chairman, and Adrian Cadbury became deputy chairman and managing director. The benefits of the merger were to prove elusive.

The merger put an end to Cadbury’s close links to its Quaker founding family and its perceived social ethos by instilling a capitalist venture philosophy in management.

The 1970s saw the development and launch of a number of chocolate bars: the Curly Wurly, the Double Decker and Caramel. After a landmark advertising campaign, the sales of Flake quadrupled. However the launch of the Rowntree Yorkie chocolate bar in the UK in 1976 seriously dented the sales of Dairy Milk, and Cadbury’s UK market share declined to 20 percent. In order to counter a declining market share, Cadbury reduced its number of lines from 78 to 33, and installed state-of-the-art technology at the Bourneville plant.

000_cadburys_04In 1978 the company acquired Peter Paul, the third largest chocolate manufacturer in the United States for $58 million, which gave it a 10 percent share of the world’s largest confectionery market. The highly successful Wispa chocolate bar was launched in the North East of England in 1981, and nationwide in 1984. In 1982, trading profits were greater outside of Britain than in the UK for the first time.

In 1986, Cadbury Schweppes sold its Beverages and Foods division to a management buyout known as Premier Brands for £97 million. This saw the company divest itself of such brands as Typhoo Tea, Kenco, Smash and Hartley Chivers jam. The deal also saw Premier take the license for production of Cadbury brand biscuits and drinking chocolate. In 1988, Cadbury US was sold to Hershey for $300 million.

In 1986, Schweppes switched its alliance in the UK from Pepsi to Coca-Cola, taking a 51 percent stake in the joint venture Coca-Cola Schweppes. In 1986, the company acquired Canada Dry and Sunkist from RJR Nabisco for $230 million, and took a 30 percent stake in Dr Pepper. As a result of these acquisitions, Cadbury Schweppes became the third largest soft drinks manufacturer in the world.

000_cadburys_06In 1987, General Cinema took an 18 percent stake in the company. General Cinema divested itself of the stake in 1990.

Snapple, Mistic and Stewart’s were sold by Triarc to Cadbury Schweppes in 2000 for $1.45  billion. In October of that same year, Cadbury Schweppes purchased Royal Crown from Triarc.

In 2003, Cadbury dropped the ‘s’ from its name and renamed the brand to Cadbury. The reason behind this change was because the company found that it was a much more suited, rounded name than the previous “Cadbury’s”. This change was officially announced on the 19th of December, 2002.

In March 2007, it was revealed that Cadbury Schweppes was planning to split its business into two separate entities: one focusing on its main chocolate and confectionery market; the other on its US drinks business. The demerger took effect on 2 May 2008, with the drinks business becoming Dr Pepper Snapple Group. In December 2008 it was announced that Cadbury was to sell its Australian beverage unit to Asahi Breweries.

Mars Bar Sauce / Mars Bar Saus

A quick recipe from “The Chocolate Book”
by Valerie Barrett published by Leisurebooks in 1987
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This sauce is very quick to make and absolutely delicious.

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