4 Classic Cakes From The Thirties / 4 Klassiske Kaker Fra Tredvetallet

4 cake recipes found in “Moderne Baking” (Modern Baking)
published by Freia as in 1938 to promote their baking powder

4 Classic Cakes From The Thirties / 4 Klassiske Kaker Fra Tredvetallet

Baking is strange, our breakfast, lunch and dinner habits and menus change a lot from decade to decade, but our favourite cakes recipes hardly ever change. “Moderne Baking” was published 80 years ago and still you could find these four recipes in one version or other in just about any contemporary baking cook book.

Its nice to know there are still some constants in our lives in these times of rapid changes – Ted

Winking smile

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Drømmegod Rullekake / Dreamlike Roly Poly

A delicious Swiss roll recipe found on alleoppskrifter.no
Drømmegod Rullekake / Dreamlike Roly Poly

Jelly Roll, Swiss Roll or Roly Poly is an old English recipe. The earliest published reference for a rolled cake spread with jelly was in the Northern Farmer, a journal published in Utica, New York, in December 1852. Called “To Make Jelly Cake”, the recipe describes a modern “jelly roll” and reads: “Bake quick and while hot spread with jelly. Roll carefully, and wrap it in a cloth. When cold cut in slices for the table.”

The terminology evolved in America for many years. From 1852 to 1877 such a dessert was called: Jelly Cake (1852), Roll Jelly Cake (1860), Swiss Roll (1872), Jelly Roll (1873), and Rolled Jelly Cake (1876). The name “Jelly Roll” was eventually adopted.

The origin of the term “Swiss roll” is unknown. The earliest British reference to a rolled cake by that name appeared on a bill of fare dated 18 June 1871, published in the 1872 book A Voyage from Southampton to Cape Town, in the Union Company’s Mail Steamer “Syria” (London). A recipe for “Swiss roll” also appeared in the U.S. that same year in The American Home Cook Book, published in Detroit, Michigan, in 1872.

Several 1880s to 1890s cookbooks from London, England, used the name Swiss roll exclusively.

The American Pastry Cook, published in Chicago in 1894, presented a basic “Jelly Roll Mixture” then listed variants made from it that included a Swiss roll, Venice roll, Paris roll, chocolate roll, jelly roll cotelettes, and decorated jelly rolls.

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Sherry Waffles / Sherryvafler

A filled cookie recipe found in “Det Nye Kjøkkenbiblioteket”
(The New Kitchen Library) published in 1971

Sherry Waffles / Sherryvafler

From the recipe text: It can not be repeated too often that you are fairly well covered for surprises in the form of suddenly arriving guests if you in the cookie jar have finished baked cookies that just need a quick whipped cream or the like to make you able to serve something really nice – such as some sherry waffles.

As you can see from the text above, Scandinavian housewive’s greatest fear back in the late sixties and early seventies was to be caught red handed by unannounced guests without some tempting goodies to serve with the coffee. Life was hard back then I can tell you, I was there – Ted 😉

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Confectionery Squares / Konfektbiter

A delicious chewy chocolate cake recipe  from “Sjokolade”  (Chocolate) published by Hjemmets Kokebokklubb in 1984
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Italian Torrone / Italiensk Torrone

An Italian speciality found in “European Favourites”
by Carol Wright published by Collins in 1973

Italian Torrone / Italiensk Torrone

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Old Fashioned Marble Cake / Gammeldags Marmorkake

A classic baking recipe found in “Formkaker” (Mould Baked Cakes) published by Hjemmets Kokebokklubb in 1981 
Old Fashioned Marble Cake / Gammeldags Marmorkake

Old fashioned marble cake – a favorite back in  grandmother’s days, and just as popular today.

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Mocha Crêpes with Pears / Mokka Crêpes med Pærer

A fancy dessert recipe found in “Robert Carrier’s Kitchen
Cook Book” published in 1980
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Robert Carrier McMahon, OBE (Tarrytown, New York, November 10, 1923 – France, June 27, 2006), usually known as Robert Carrier, was an American chef, restaurateur and cookery writer. His success came in England, where he was based from 1953 to 1984, and then from 1994 until his death.

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Chocolate Custard / Vaniljesaus med Sjokoladesmak

A custard recipe found in “32 Entirely New & Original Lutona Cocoa Recipes” published by E & S Jt C.W.S Ltd in the 1930s.
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Text from the booklet: Everyone knows that the most nourishing, most sustaining and appetising hot beverage in the world is Cocoa.

Everyone knows it as a beverage that may be freely partaken of at any time of the day by children and adults alike, without fear of indigestion or ill effects.

But the Cocoa you drink must be the best. and there is no finer Cocoa in all the world than Lutona.

Lutona is made from the choicest varieties of cocoas grown under ideal conditions and matured in Society’s own Depots in West Africa.

Every phase of its manufacture is under the direct control of the Society and the most rigid precautions are taken to ensure that the natural purity and full food value of the cocoa are retained.

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Chocolate Pancakes / Sjokoladepannekaker

A recipe from “32 Entirely New & Original Lutona Cocoa Recipes” published by E & S Jt. C.W.S Ltd. in the 1930s
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In Context: The English and the Scottish CWS opened a cocoa factory in Dallow Road, Luton, in 1902. Like the British Empire it is gone now, demolished early in 1970. It is now a site of the Guardian Business Park, near the junction with Vernon Road. This poster dates from 1906 and is a contrast between an idealised view of work in West Africa and the impressive building with smoking chimney to demonstarte a hive of industry in Luton.

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Nowadays the cocoa and chocolate is advertised as a Fairtrade product, the workers in West Africa have their own co-operative, but no sign of any factories in the UK, or wherever it is processed in the EU.

Here’s How to Cool off With Coffee

Recipes from an coffee ad published by
The Pan-American Coffee Bureau in 1956

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The Pan-American Coffee Bureau kindly brings you advice on both how to brew your ice coffee and how to enjoy it.

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French Chocolate + 2 more / Fransk Sjokolade + 2 til

3 recipes from  “Best Chocolate and Cocoa Recipes”
published by Walter Baker & Company in 1931

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Text from the booklet:

Beverages – Steaming or Frosted –
Cocoa … The Food Drink

A fragrant cup of Baker’s Cocoa, beaded with creamy bubbles, is one of the most beneficial food drinks for both children and adults. Made with a generous supply of milk, it contains the vital food elements in admirably balanced proportion . . . elements necessary for buoyant health and robust bodies.

There is also glowing warmth for frosty mornings … sustaining energy for those in-between hours after school . . . and soothing nourishment at nightfall for tired minds and bodies.

Foamy, creamy-rich cocoa is a wonderful food with which to woo finicky child-appetites – an easy and delicious way of helping to include the daily quart of milk in their meals. Grown-ups welcome cocoa, too, as a way of building up run-down systems. And in this day of slimmer waists, cocoa is popular because it provides nourishment that is satisfying but not fattening.

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Camilla’s Sunday Cake / Camillas Søndagskake

A flashback from the sixties found in ”Husmorens Store Kokebok” (The Housewife’s Big Cook Book) published in 1963
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Everything about this picture reminds me of my childhood. The fancy way of decorating the cake and the flowery tea cups are so very typical of a Norwegian coffee table  back in the sixties. I still got several sets of tea crockery just like the one you see above. I’m a bit weird, I know – Ted 😉

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History of Cadbury

1824–1900: Early history

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In 1824, John Cadbury began selling tea, coffee, and drinking chocolate in Bull Street in Birmingham, England. From 1831 he moved into the production of a variety of cocoa and drinking chocolates, made in a factory in Bridge Street and sold mainly to the wealthy because of the high cost of production. In 1847 John Cadbury became a partner with his brother Benjamin and the company became known as “Cadbury Brothers”

000_cadburys_01The brothers opened an office, in London and in 1854 they received the Royal Warrant as manufacturers of chocolate and cocoa to Queen Victoria. The company went into decline in the late 1850s.

John Cadbury’s sons Richard and George took over the business in 1861. At the time of the takeover, the business was in rapid decline: the number of employees had reduced from 20 to 11, and the company was losing money. By 1864 Cadbury was profitable again. The brothers had turned around the business by moving the focus from tea and coffee to chocolate, and by increasing the quality of their products.

The firm’s first major breakthrough occurred in 1866 when Richard and George introduced an improved cocoa into Britain. A new cocoa press developed in the Netherlands removed some of the unpalatable cocoa butter from the cocoa bean. The firm began exporting its products in the 1870s. In the 1880s the firm began to produce chocolate confectioneries.

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In 1878 the brothers decided to build new premises in countryside four miles from Birmingham. The move to the countryside was unprecedented in business. Better transport access for milk that was inward shipped by canal, and cocoa that was brought in by rail from 000_cadburys_03London, Southampton and Liverpool docks was taken into consideration. With the development of the Birmingham West Suburban Railway along the path of the Worcester and Birmingham Canal, they acquired the Bournbrook estate, comprising 14.5 acres (5.9 ha) of countryside 5 miles (8.0 km) south of the outskirts of Birmingham. Located next Stirchley Street railway station, which itself was opposite the canal, they renamed the estate Bournville and opened the Bournville factory the following year.

In 1893, George Cadbury bought 120 acres (49 ha) of land close to the works and planned, at his own expense, a model village which would ‘alleviate the evils of modern more cramped living conditions’. By 1900 the estate included 314 cottages and houses set on 330 acres (130 ha) of land. As the Cadbury family were Quakers there were no pubs in the estate.

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In 1897, following the lead of Swiss companies, Cadbury introduced its own line of milk chocolate bars.

In 1899 Cadbury became a private limited company.

1900–1969

000_cadburys_02In 1905, Cadbury launched its Dairy Milk bar, a production of exceptional quality with a higher proportion of milk than previous chocolate bars. Developed by George Cadbury Jr, it was the first time a British company had been able to mass-produce milk chocolate. From the beginning, it had the distinctive purple wrapper. It was a great sales success, and became the company’s best selling product by 1914. The stronger Bournville Cocoa line was introduced in 1906. Cadbury Dairy Milk and Bournville Cocoa were to provide the basis for the company’s rapid pre-war expansion. In 1910, Cadbury sales overtook those of Fry for the first time. By 1914, exports accounted for 40 percent of Cadbury’s sales.

Cadbury’s Milk Tray was first produced in 1915 and continued in production throughout the remainder of the First World War. More than 2,000 of Cadbury’s male employees joined the Armed Forces and to support the war effort, Cadbury provided clothing, books and chocolate to soldiers. After the war, the Bournville factory was redeveloped and mass production began in earnest. In 1918, Cadbury opened their first overseas factory in Hobart, Tasmania.

000_cadburys_07In 1919 Cadbury merged with J. S. Fry & Sons, another leading British chocolate manufacturer, resulting in the integration of well-known brands such as Fry’s Chocolate Cream and Fry’s Turkish Delight. In 1921, the many small Fry’s factories around Bristol were closed down, and production was consolidated at a new factory in Somerdale, outside Bristol.

Inter-war Britain saw cocoa replaced by chocolate (especially milk chocolate bars) as Britain’s preferred product.

Fruit and Nut was introduced as part of the Dairy Milk line in 1928, soon followed by Whole Nut in 1933. By this point, Cadbury was the brand leader in the United Kingdom. These were accompanied by several other products: Flake (1920), Cream-filled eggs (1923), Crunchie (1929) (Crunchie was originally launched under the Fry’s name but later adopted by Cadbury’s) and Roses (1938).

By 1930 Cadbury had become the 24th largest British manufacturing company as measured by estimated market value of capital. Cadbury took direct control of the under-performing Fry in 1935. By 1936, Dairy Milk accounted for 60 percent of the UK milk chocolate market.

000_cadburys_10Chocolate ceased to be a luxury product and became affordable to the working classes for the first time. By the mid-1930s, Cadbury estimated that 90 percent of the British population could afford to buy chocolate.

During World War II, parts of the Bournville factory were turned over to war work, producing milling machines and seats for fighter aircraft. Workers ploughed football fields to plant crops. As chocolate was regarded as an essential food, it was placed under government supervision for the entire war. The wartime rationing of chocolate ended in 1950, and normal production resumed. Cadbury subsequently invested in new factories and had an increasing demand for their products.

In 1952 the Moreton factory was built. In 1956, Cadbury began manufacturing in Bombay.

In 1967 Cadbury acquired an Australian confectioner, MacRobertson’s, beating a rival bid from Mars. As a result of the takeover, Cadbury built a 60 percent market share in the Australian market. The acquisition brought such brands as Freddo and Snack to the Cadbury roster.

Schweppes merger and demerger (1969 – 2007)

000_cadburys_08The Cadbury Schweppes logo used until the demerger in 2008 Cadbury merged with drinks company Schweppes to form Cadbury Schweppes in 1969. Head of Schweppes, Lord Watkinson, became chairman, and Adrian Cadbury became deputy chairman and managing director. The benefits of the merger were to prove elusive.

The merger put an end to Cadbury’s close links to its Quaker founding family and its perceived social ethos by instilling a capitalist venture philosophy in management.

The 1970s saw the development and launch of a number of chocolate bars: the Curly Wurly, the Double Decker and Caramel. After a landmark advertising campaign, the sales of Flake quadrupled. However the launch of the Rowntree Yorkie chocolate bar in the UK in 1976 seriously dented the sales of Dairy Milk, and Cadbury’s UK market share declined to 20 percent. In order to counter a declining market share, Cadbury reduced its number of lines from 78 to 33, and installed state-of-the-art technology at the Bourneville plant.

000_cadburys_04In 1978 the company acquired Peter Paul, the third largest chocolate manufacturer in the United States for $58 million, which gave it a 10 percent share of the world’s largest confectionery market. The highly successful Wispa chocolate bar was launched in the North East of England in 1981, and nationwide in 1984. In 1982, trading profits were greater outside of Britain than in the UK for the first time.

In 1986, Cadbury Schweppes sold its Beverages and Foods division to a management buyout known as Premier Brands for £97 million. This saw the company divest itself of such brands as Typhoo Tea, Kenco, Smash and Hartley Chivers jam. The deal also saw Premier take the license for production of Cadbury brand biscuits and drinking chocolate. In 1988, Cadbury US was sold to Hershey for $300 million.

In 1986, Schweppes switched its alliance in the UK from Pepsi to Coca-Cola, taking a 51 percent stake in the joint venture Coca-Cola Schweppes. In 1986, the company acquired Canada Dry and Sunkist from RJR Nabisco for $230 million, and took a 30 percent stake in Dr Pepper. As a result of these acquisitions, Cadbury Schweppes became the third largest soft drinks manufacturer in the world.

000_cadburys_06In 1987, General Cinema took an 18 percent stake in the company. General Cinema divested itself of the stake in 1990.

Snapple, Mistic and Stewart’s were sold by Triarc to Cadbury Schweppes in 2000 for $1.45  billion. In October of that same year, Cadbury Schweppes purchased Royal Crown from Triarc.

In 2003, Cadbury dropped the ‘s’ from its name and renamed the brand to Cadbury. The reason behind this change was because the company found that it was a much more suited, rounded name than the previous “Cadbury’s”. This change was officially announced on the 19th of December, 2002.

In March 2007, it was revealed that Cadbury Schweppes was planning to split its business into two separate entities: one focusing on its main chocolate and confectionery market; the other on its US drinks business. The demerger took effect on 2 May 2008, with the drinks business becoming Dr Pepper Snapple Group. In December 2008 it was announced that Cadbury was to sell its Australian beverage unit to Asahi Breweries.

The Lyons Corner Houses

J. Lyons & Co. was a substantial food manufacturer, with factories at Cadby Hall in Hammersmith, and from 1921 at Greenford, producing bread, cakes, pies, tea, coffee and ice cream.

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To the public, J. Lyons & Co. were best known for their chain of tea shops which opened from 1894 and finally closed in 1981, and for the Lyons Corner Houses in the West End of London. The tea shops were 000_corner house7slightly more up-market than their ABC (Aerated Bread Company) counterparts. They were notable for their interior design, from the 1920s Oliver P. Bernard being consultant artistic director. Until the 1940s they had a certain working-class chic, but by the 1950s and 60s they were quick stops for busy shoppers where one could drink a cup of tea and eat a snack or an inexpensive meal.

The tea shops always had a bakery counter at the front, and their signs, art nouveau gold lettering on white, were a familiar landmark (before the Second World War service was to the table by uniformed waitresses, known as ‘Nippies’, but after the War the tea shops converted to cafeteria service).Corner Houses

In Context I
Nippies
A nippy was a waitress who worked in the J. Lyons & Co tea shops and cafes in London. Beginning in the late 19th century, a J. Lyons waitress was called a “Gladys”. From 1926, because the waitresses nipped (moved quickly) around the tea shops, and the term “Nippy” came into use. Nippies wore a distinctive maid-like uniform with a matching hat.

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000_corner house3By the 1920s it was already long established in the advertising world that attractive females could sell products, and the tea business of J Lyons & Co was no exception. Nippies appeared in all manner of advertising, on product packages, and on promotional items.

The Nippy soon became a national icon. Unlike other endorsements of the day, which often took the form of popular celebrities or cartoon characters, a Nippy was 000_corner house4contrastingly accessible and close to home. A Nippy was someone who could be seen and interacted with every day, and perhaps this was part of the appeal of the concept.

J. Lyons was very careful to maintain the Nippy image as wholesome and proper — strict cleanliness standards applied for Nippy uniforms, and before World War II J. Lyons would not hire married women as Nippies. So popular was the image that miniature Nippy outfits were popular for children dressing up for special events such as fetes.

The Corner Houses, which first appeared in 1909 and remained until 1977, were noted for their art deco style. Situated on or near the corners of Coventry Street, Strand and Tottenham Court Road, they 000_corner houseand the Maison Lyonses at Marble Arch and in Shaftesbury Avenue were large buildings on four or five floors, the ground floor of which was a food hall with counters for delicatessen, sweets and chocolates, cakes, fruit, flowers and other products.

In addition, they possessed hairdressing salons, telephone booths, theatre booking agencies and at one period a twice-a-day food delivery service. On the other floors were several restaurants, each with a different theme and all with their own musicians. For a time the Corner Houses were open 24 hours a day, and at their peak each branch employed around 400 staff. They featured window displays designed by Kay Lipton (née Man) and, in the post-war period, the Corner Houses were smarter and grander than the local tea shops. Between 1896 and 1965 Lyons owned the Trocadero, which was similar in size and style to the Corner Houses.

Text from Wikipedia

In context II
Lyons-style tea houses to take on the coffee shops
With its finger sandwiches, scones and pastries, all served on a silver stand, a new High Street chain promises to bring back the elegance of the Lyons tea houses. The first Cadbury Cocoa House is to open next week with a hope for at least 50 more of the quintessentially British outlets in the next five years.

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The theme has echoes of the Lyons Corner Houses, with their uniformed waitresses – the ‘Nippies’ – which were hugely popular before the last war. The concept will challenge the dominance of 000_corner house6the bland US coffee shop culture with its foreign mix of paninis and ciabatta, capuccinos and lattes. The team behind the concept includes a former operations chief at Starbucks UK, who has also organised Royal garden parties and was a senior executive at Harrods.

The restaurants, which are more upmarket than existing coffee shops, will offer a ‘Ritz-style’ tea for two served on a tiered silver stand. It includes a collection of finger sandwiches, such as cucumber, cream cheese and garden mint, and oak smoked salmon and lemon butter. These come with freshly baked scones, served with Devon cream and raspberry preserve, together with a collection of pastries and Twinings tea.

Posted on  MailOnline October 2010

The History of Rowntree & Co’s Cocoa and Chocolate

000_rowntree_02_thumb[2]One strand of the Rowntree story can be traced all the way back to 1725 and a remarkable woman, Mary Tuke.  She came from a prominent Quaker family – her grandfather was one of 4,000 people jailed for their beliefs in the 1660s.

In 1725, at the age of 30, Mary took the unusual decision for a woman of this era to set up a grocery shop.  She took on her nephew William as an apprentice in 1746, and he inherited the business when she died six years later.

The shop went on to specialise in tea, coffee and a chocolate drink bought-in from Bristol.  William’s son Henry followed him into the business and in 1785 they began to manufacture of cocoa and chocolate themselves.

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Several decades later, in 1862, Henry Isaac Rowntree purchased the Tukes’ cocoa and chocolate business.  For a teetotal Quaker, there 000_rowntree_05_thumb[2]was a social side to the business: chocolate drinks were promoted as an alternative to alcohol for the working man. 

Henry moved the firm from Coppergate to Tanner’s Moat in 1864 and in 1869 he was joined in the business by his brother, Joseph Rowntree.  A breakthrough came in 1881 when, with the help of a French confectioner, the firm began the manufacture of pastilles, previously imported from France.

Joseph realised that tastes were changing.  People wanted a purer product and, after a lot of time and effort, Joseph developed Rowntree’s Elect Cocoa in 1887.  Marketed as ‘more than a drink, a food’, it too proved popular.

Soon demand dictated that Rowntree’s move to larger premises.  In July 1890, a 24-acre site was purchased off Haxby Road for the modern Rowntree’s Cocoa Works.

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The firm hit trouble in the years leading up to the Great War, as the popularity of Elect Cocoa declined, and during the depression of the 1920s.  Marketing director and future chairman George Harris used his knowledge of American promotional methods to turn things around.  His policy was based on product development, branding and advertising.  The number of lines was slimmed down and the products which went on to become household names were launched: KitKat, Black Magic, Aero, Dairy Box, Smarties Rolos and Polos all came out in the 1930s.

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At its peak, Rowntree’s was a town within a town, employing 14,000 people, though later the workforce was much reduced by mechanisation.  In 1988, Swiss multinational Nestlé bought Rowntree’s in the teeth of major opposition in York.

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Text from History of York